Food History: Ketchup and Mustard

Around 300 BCE, people in China were experimenting
with making pungent pastes out of fermented fish guts. A few centuries later, the Greek
historian Pliny shared a method to treat scorpion stings using the ground-up seeds of a common
plant. These are the unlikely origin stories of ketchup and mustard. Hi, I’m Justin Dodd. *And I’m Justin Dodd*
Welcome to Food History, and shout-out to Bradley Jones and no_diet_diet_club for suggesting
ketchup and condiments as topics. People in the United States spend over a billion dollars,
in total, on ketchup and mustard each year, but neither item was invented here. *So how
did two condiments with thousands of years of history between them become associated
with hotdogs and hamburgers? By the way, looking good, Justin.* Thanks, Justin. Let’s start with mustard. It’s been around
for a while. In fact, it may have been among the first crops ever cultivated. Mustard first
appears in the archaeological record in China around 6800 years ago—and in this case,
when I say mustard I’m referring to the plant and its seeds, and not the condiment
that comes from them. There are multiple species of mustard plant, with most being members
of the Brassica or Sinapis genera. Mustard is closely related to broccoli and cabbage.
Bonus shout-out to Randall Mason and the 47 people who liked his comment suggesting we
make a whole episode on foods that are hybrids of cabbage. I reserve the right to make a
super-involved episode on that topic, but for now here’s an incomplete list of plants
that are somehow all the same species, brassica oleracea: cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, broccoli,
broccolini, brussel sprouts, and cauliflower. All one species! When it comes to mustard, the seeds harvested
from the plant were used as a spice and a medicine before they became a condiment. Indian
and Sumerian texts from around 2000 BCE mention them in this context. The paste-like form of mustard showed up roughly
2500 years ago. The Greeks and Romans blended ground-up mustard seeds with unfermented grape
juice, or must, to make a smooth mixture. The term mustard may come from the Latin for
hot must,” a truly unappetizing combination of words. Hot. Must. The first version of this concoction wasn’t
necessarily food. It may have been used more for its medicinal properties, and not completely
without reason. Mustard seeds are rich in compounds called glucosinolates. When these
particles get broken down, they produce isothiocyanates, powerful antioxidants that fight inflammation
and give mustard its nose-tingling kick. The Greeks and Romans applied mustard’s medicinal
properties to almost every ailment imaginable. Hippocrates praised its ability to soothe
aches and pains. Many of mustard’s historical uses don’t hold up to modern science—for
instance, it’s not a cure for epilepsy, as the Romans once believed—but it’s still
used as a holistic treatment for arthritis, back pain, and even sore throats. While experimenting with mustard as medicine,
the Greeks and Romans discovered that pulverized mustard seeds were pretty tasty. In the first
century C.E., Roman agriculture writer Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella—sidenote, awesome
name— published the first recorded recipe for mustard as a condiment in his tome De
Re Rustica. It called for an acid and ground mustard seeds—the same basic formula that’s
used to make mustard today. Meanwhile, the evolution of another popular
condiment was underway halfway across the world. Ketchup first appeared in China around
300 BCE. In the Amoy dialect of Chinese, kôe-chiap means ‘the brine of pickled fish,’ according
to the Oxford English Dictionary. 19th century ethnologist Terrien de Lacouperie thought
the word might’ve come from a Chinese community living outside of China. In any case, the
name is pretty much the only thing that version of ketchup had in common with the bottle of
red stuff in your fridge. It was actually much more like garum, a mediterranean fish
sauce that was once wildly popular in Ancient Roman cuisine. Modern versions of garum can
actually be found today in high-end restaurants like Denmark’s Noma. Some have even suggested
that Asian fish sauce is a descendant of garum. And how was the Chinese fish sauce, known
as ketchup, made? Likely by fermenting ingredients like fish entrails, soybeans, and meat byproducts.
Mm. Meat byproducts. You probably know that fermentation gives
us beer and wine, and you might even know it can involve yeast. But what exactly is
going on when something ferments? *Food science intro* Fermentation is a pathway for breaking down
carbohydrates like glucose when aerobic respiration isn’t possible— when oxygen isn’t able
to act as an acceptor of the electron transport chain. Both aerobic respiration and fermentation
create Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. And if, like me, you only remember things from
school that rhyme, you know that ATP gives en-er-gy. You might read online that fermentation is
carried out by simple organisms, and that’s mostly true, but it can also happen within
your own body. Red blood cells don’t have mitochondria, and therefore can’t perform
cellular respiration. Instead they carry out lactic acid fermentation. The live cultures
in yogurt do, too, as do muscle cells, in certain conditions. One byproduct of lactic
acid fermentation is lactate—hence the name—and, despite it not rhyming, I clearly remember
being taught in school that the buildup of lactate was responsible for sore muscles.
Turns out, research suggests that’s probably not the case. My typical theater major disclaimers apply
for that scientific breakdown, but the important thing for us to know is that fermentation
creates byproducts that can be of great interest to human beings. One such byproduct is the
ethanol that gives us beer and wine through alcohol fermentation. Another is monosodium glutamate, also known
as MSG. A lot of theories fly around about MSG, but it’s worth pointing out that glutamates
appear naturally in all sorts of foods, from tomatoes to beef to parmesan cheese. Our own
bodies produce glutamates. And MSG can give foods a savory, hard-to-define flavor called
umami. The fish paste that was created by fermentation possessed this umami, and was
used to add a salty, savory depth of flavor to a variety of dishes. And because fermentation
can breed so-called “good” microorganisms while inhibiting the growth of the bad bacteria
that cause foods to rot, this version of ketchup could be stored on ships for months without
spoiling, an important factor at a time when trade routes could take months to traverse. As ketchup spread to different parts of the
globe, it went through a few transformations. Trade routes carried it to Indonesia and the
Philippines, and it was likely around this part of the world that British traders discovered
and fell in love with the funky seasoning. As soon as ketchup landed in Great Britain
in the early 1700s, Western cooks found ways to make it their own. One of the first English
recipes for ketchup, published in Eliza Smith’s 1727 book The Compleat Housewife, calls for
anchovies, shallots, ginger, cloves, and horseradish. Some recipes used oysters as the seafood component,
while others cut the fish out of the fish sauce completely. Popular bases for ketchup
around this time included peaches, plums, celery seed, mushrooms, nuts, lemon, and beer.
Like their predecessor, these sauces were often salty, flavorful, and had a long shelf-life,
but beyond that they could vary greatly. The word ketchup evolved into a catch-all term
for any spiced condiment served with a meal—”spiced” referring to ingredients like cinnamon or
nutmeg rather than heat level, by the way. Walnut is said to have been the preferred
ketchup variety of Jane Austen. I’m now imagining Elizabeth Bennett being courted
by a Mr. Walnut. He’s mature, and deep, and just a little spicy. Mustard received its own makeover when it
was imported to different parts of Europe. The Romans invaded the land now known as France
in the first century B.C.E., and the mustard seeds they brought with them thrived in the
region’s fertile soil. Locals loved the new condiment, including the monks living
in the French countryside. By the ninth century, monasteries had turned mustard production
into a major source of income. Mustard found its way into less humble settings
as well. Pope John XXII was said to be such a fan that he appointed a Grand Moutardier
du Pape, or “Grand Mustard-Maker to the Pope.” John XXII was one of the Avignon
popes, who lived in what is now France rather than Rome, and he created the mustard-making
position specially for his unemployed nephew who lived in Dijon, which was already the
mustard capital of France by the 14th century. Even French royalty developed a taste for
mustard. King Louis XI made it an essential part of his diet, going so far as to travel
with a personal pot of the sauce so he’d never have to eat a meal without it. And honestly:
I respect the move. There are many types of mustard; yellow, spicy
brown, English, Chinese, and German, to name a few. But to some condiment connoisseurs,
mustard is still synonymous with the creamy Dijon variety that first took hold of France
centuries ago. In 1634, it was declared that true French
mustard could only be made in Dijon. The recipe was an important part of French cuisine, but
as one innovator proved, there was still room left for improvement. Dijon native Jean Naigeon
tinkered with the formula in 1752, swapping the traditional vinegar with verjuice, or
the sour juice of unripe grapes. The simple change gave dijon the smooth taste and creamy
texture that’s associated with the product today. Most modern dijon uses white wine or
wine vinegar to imitate that original verjuice flavor. And most of it isn’t made in Dijon.
Unlike champagne or Parmigiano-Reggiano, which must come from the areas who lend their names
to the products, dijon no longer enjoys “protected designation of origin” status. The dijon you’re most likely to find in
your local supermarket is probably Grey Poupon. In 1866, inventor Maurice Grey teamed up with
financier Auguste Poupon to revolutionize the mustard world. Grey’s automated mustard-making
machine brought the artisan product into the Industrial Age. Today, most Grey-Poupon mustard
is made in American factories and enjoyed in the backs of Rolls Royces. That can’t
be right. While mustard was flourishing, ketchup was
still figuring out how it would leave its mark on the white t-shirt of history. After
arriving in America by way of British colonization, the sauce joined forces with the ingredient
that would define it for decades to come: the tomato. The British had experimented with
turning nearly everything they could find into ketchup, but tomatoes were the exception.
At least in part because, much like the star of our mashed potatoes episode, the New World
fruit was believed, by some, to be poisonous when it was first introduced to Europe by
explorers in the 16th century. It’s possible that some wealthy English people did get sick
from eating tomatoes, though not for the reasons they suspected. If they were eating off lead
and pewter plates, the acid from the tomatoes may have leached lead into their food, thus
giving them a case of lead poisoning they might’ve mistaken for tomato poisoning.
A lot of food historians doubt how much influence this could have had on public perception,
though, arguing that lead poisoning takes too long to develop to get connected to any
single dish. Instead, it could just be that tomatoes looked like plants that Europeans
knew were poisonous, and so were branded with guilt by association. The bottom line is,
the reasons are contested, but by the late 16th century you can definitely find anti-tomato
texts in English. This misconception about the risks of tomatoes
may have persisted among English Americans if it weren’t for the efforts of some passionate
tomato advocates. One of these crusaders was Philadelphia scientist and horticulturist
James Mease. He referred to tomatoes as “love apples,” and in 1812, he published the first
known recipe for tomato ketchup. The name love apples didn’t stick, sadly,
but tomato ketchup did. People with fears about tomatoes felt safer eating them in processed
form—something anyone who’s ever ordered a burger with no tomatoes and extra ketchup
can relate to. And ketchup may have gotten an assist from a bit of old-fashioned quackery.
Dr. John Cook Bennett touted tomatoes as a cure for maladies ranging from diarrhea to
indigestion. He published his own recipes for tomato ketchup, and eventually the product
was being sold in pill form as patent medicine, helping to sway public perception about the
benefits of tomatoes. In reality, though, early tomato ketchup was
actually less safe than tomatoes from the vine. The first commercial products were poorly
preserved, resulting in jars that were teeming with bacteria—and not the good kind. Some
manufacturers cut corners by pumping the condiment with dangerous levels of artificial preservatives.
Coal tar was also added to ketchup to give it its red color. That’s just slightly less
concerning than the time Heinz made ketchup green. Speaking of Heinz, the company is largely
responsible for elevating ketchup from potential botulism-in-a-bottle to staple condiment.
Pennsylvania entrepreneur Henry J. Heinz got his start in the condiment business in 1869
by making and selling his mother’s horseradish recipe. Seven years later, he saw an opportunity
to bring some must-needed quality to the ketchup market. The first bottles of Heinz ketchup hit stores
in 1876, and in the years that followed they would do
several things to set themselves apart from the competition. For starters, Heinz got rid
of the coal tar and all that other stuff you don’t want on your French fries. Instead,
he blended distilled vinegar with ripe, fresh tomatoes. His formula was shelf-stable and
it tasted good, but that alone may not have been enough to make Heinz a household name.
Arguably the biggest change he made was packaging his products in clear, glass bottles. Before
that, ketchup had been sold in brown bottles to hide its poor quality. With Heinz, customers
knew exactly what they were getting. The Heinz ketchup bottle is one of the most
iconic pieces of food packaging ever created, and it’s likely shaped your perception of
the product. This extends even to the spelling of the word. If you write C-A-T-S-U-P you
may get funny looks, but it’s a perfectly valid old spelling for the word, and for years
was actually the preferred spelling in America. Heinz labeled his condiment ketchup with a
K as another way to differentiate it from its catsup with a C counterparts. Today Heinz’s
version is widely regarded as the correct spelling. Mustard also arrived in America shortly after
the first European settlers did, but All-American yellow mustard didn’t appear until much
later. At the World’s Fair in Chicago in 1904, the R.T. French Company debuted its
new “cream salad mustard”—which is an unfortunate name, but still much better than
hot must. Hot. Must. Distracted fairgoers may have overlooked the
product if it wasn’t for a special new ingredient. Mustard is naturally brown or beige, but Brothers
George and Francis French added turmeric to their mustard to give it a neon yellow look. For a canvas to showcase their condiment,
the Frenches chose the hotdog—a dish that was fairly new to Americans at the time. The
R.T. French Company’s cream salad mustard, or French’s yellow mustard, is still a classic
hot dog topping more than century later. Although, to be honest, I’d just as soon take my hot
dog with no mustard or ketchup at all. What do you think is the right way to top a hot
dog? Tell us in the comments. And as long as we’re starting unnecessary comment fights
that will invariably devolve into hysterical ad-hominem attacks, what’s the best way
to top a burger? Ketchup? Mustard? Mayonnaise? Whatever your personal feelings may be—and
put me down for some honey mustard and a bit of garlic aioli— ketchup and mustard have
no-doubt secured their positions as culinary heavyweights. Surprisingly, though, neither
product is the top-selling condiment in the U.S.. That distinction belongs to ranch dressing,
which is a $1 billion industry as of last year, and really just speaks to the decline
of the American empire. Did King Louis XI carry around a pot of it? Did Jane Austen
have a favorite ranch recipe? Not likely. Last episode we promised to answer a food-or-drink-related
question from the comments, and Vincent Chavez Jr asked, “Does dark roast coffee have more
caffeine or?” at which point I assume he fell asleep at his keyboard. I’m sorry,
Vincent. It turns out, this question is a bit harder to answer than you might expect.
You’ll find sources online swearing that dark roast has more caffeine because it tastes
stronger, that light roast has more caffeine because less caffeine is burned off in the
roast, and that there are no meaningful differences. Here’s what’s really going on: Caffeine
is not appreciably affected by the roasting process—it’s actually quite stable at
the temperatures used in coffee roasting. But the beans themselves are affected; the
more a coffee bean gets roasted, the more water evaporates out, and—somewhat confusingly—the
larger the bean gets. So the dark-roasted beans are less dense. The individual beans
don’t change in caffeine content, but more of them are needed to create an equivalent
mass of ground coffee beans. That means that a cup of dark-roast coffee—if made using
the same mass of coffee grinds and brewed in exactly the same way as a cup of light-roast
coffee—might have a bit more caffeine. In practice, there are a number of other variables
in play, from the species of coffee to the amount of water used in the brew, so your
best bet is probably just ordering coffee based on your preferred taste. Hold the mustard.

86 comments on “Food History: Ketchup and Mustard”

  1. Jackson Lewis says:

    Love this channel

  2. Tem says:

    amazing content I loved it

  3. Tem says:

    cool video it was really entertaining

  4. Elijs Dima says:

    Are there any modern-day "food" vegetables that are still the same as their "wild ancestors"? Because so many of modern day regular veggies (carrots, cauliflowers, potatoes etc.) are very very different from the plants they were cultivated from…

  5. peter palludan says:

    "Mustard" = "hot must" then "Tard", or as we say, Turd", is "hot". So, I think "hot must", sounds a little better than "turd must". thus we have "Mustard".

  6. WolfWarlord01 says:

    Best hot dog toppings are cheese and barbecue sauce

  7. Natalie Zamora says:

    This guy is hilarious and a great host! Keep putting him in videos!

  8. Bibis Hye says:

    here in brazil some people top hot dogs with mashed potatoes. I think it's pretty weird

  9. Mental Floss says:

    I know we stoked the flames of discord by asking people to sound off on the ultimate hot dog topping, but at least there's one thing we can all agree on: hot dogs are not sandwiches.

  10. ShadeKnight says:

    Let me say this, as someone who lives in Illinois….the official way to eat a hotdog is with no ketchup, you will be ridiculed and treated as a child if you ask for ketchup…that's why we head to Costco to get them, how you eat your dog there stays there…

  11. Tover Yonder says:

    chili, cheese and fresh white onions for both

  12. Paul Mikelson says:

    Diced raw onion, dill pickles, serrano chili, mustard

  13. Tryo707 says:

    Burger topping : Avocado and Bacon.
    Hot Dog: Dijon Mustard and Sweet Relish (Chili and Cheese 2nd place).

  14. Kai Yedy says:

    Mayo is best condiment by far, BBQ sauce is worst. Fight me. (Yes I am very white)

  15. Freddles279 says:

    Wait a minute! Don't you guys know you are supposed to be at least 6 feet away from each other???
    Cat-soup and Mouse-turd… I HATE ketchup! And yet I'd eat ketchup all day long if it meant I didn't have to eat mustard. LOL Yes, I realize other things are made with those two ingredients but as condiments… NOPE!

  16. BadOpinions says:

    Ketchup >>> Mustard

  17. Review movie wirld says:


  18. Juan Santos says:

    Mayonnaise, mayonnaise, and mayonnaise.

  19. Breezy says:

    I love food history. Keep em coming!

  20. CrystalCarnations says:

    Best Topping: A Full Dill Pickle, but cut it and wrap it around the hot dog so you get pickle and hot dog perfectly in every bite.

  21. Average Machinist says:

    Hot dogs: mustard is the only sauce. I personally like a Chicago dog and drag it thru the garden.

  22. brian whittle says:

    I'm I the only one that can't stand Ketchup?

  23. K Kobi says:

    Try topping your peanut butter sandwich with mustard. Sounds weird, but once you try it you'll never grab the jelly again.

  24. Joshua Worden says:

    You know what goes great on a burger? Ranch dressing.

  25. bluewales73 says:

    Your hands look blue.

  26. Leggo MuhEggo says:

    ketchup and catsup are different words

  27. Agnes Strzykowska says:

    People were afraid of tomatoes because they belong to the nightshade family from which many are poisonous. Still I can't imagine my kitchen without them: potatoes, peppers, aubergine, goji berries 😋

  28. Freddles279 says:

    After switching back and forth, I was SOOOOO hoping the last shirt we saw you in would be half red and half yellow.
    Also, the best topping for a burger? … Bacon! Because, what goes well with bacon? More bacon!
    After that, maybe chili and cheese.

  29. CorrosionX4 says:

    Bacon, sliced cheese and meat sauce

  30. waldo san says:

    Onions, Dijon mustard, and relish.

  31. Monty Cantsin says:

    Hot Dog with minced Kim Chee and Mayo.

  32. Tophie says:

    My preferences for hot dogs and hamburgers:
    Hot dogs: Mayo on the bun, mustard, ketchup, relish, onions (white or French-fried) on top OR brown mustard, sauerkraut, French-friend onions
    Burger: Mayo, ketchup (or barbecue sauce), mustard (brown if using bbq sauce instead of ketchup), lettuce, pickles, onions (French-fried if using bbq sauce and/or brown mustard), and tomatoes (if they're red all the way through). Yum!

  33. RMoribayashi says:

    Heinz ketchup may have been an improvement on existing brands but that lovely red stuff in the bottle looked terrible at the top where unsightly bits floated. Heintz's solution… They added a band of paper around the neck to hide the surface of the ketchup. The bits are long gone but the strip of paper remains.

  34. drohegda says:

    At one time People thought tomatoes were harmful to your health because of the acidity and they would not eat them,some people called Tomatoes "" Wolf Peaches"". Thank You for the Video!

  35. Rü Bən says:

    Ketchup.. you mean high fructose corn syrup

  36. Jamie Esplan says:

    Hot (veggie) dogs have to have mustard, mayo, and relish!

  37. RMoribayashi says:

    Hot dog: Gulden's Brown Mustard and Heinz Sweet Relish. Hambuger: 1 slice of tomato, 3 leaves of lettuce (Iceberg NOT Romaine) and Heinz Ketchup and Hellmann's Mayonnaise stirred together 50/50 and spread thickly on both sides of a sesame seed bun.

  38. Nathan Flannery says:

    Ketchup on both cheeseburgers and hotdogs, if you aren't going chili and cheese. Mustard is a disgusting abomination and has no place being near edible food.

    Also, ketchup is a condiment, not an ingredient (like being baked onto meatloaf). Mayo is an ingredient (like in egg salad or potato salad), not a condiment. Fite me.

  39. that1guy731 says:


    1904 world's fair in Chicago?

    St. Louis has left the chat

  40. SuperCookieGaming says:

    if your not having a texas tommy the best way to top a hotdog is ketchup and mustard.

  41. SuperCookieGaming says:

    Do any of DOP products actually taste different when not made in their origin town

  42. Jonathan Rodd says:

    Mmmmmm yeah. Gotta love those love apples 😉

  43. Alverant says:

    Go to Chicago to get their dogs.

  44. Jonathan Rodd says:

    For a burger, I'm cool with just cheese and ketchup.

  45. Stefan Eckensperger says:

    is his uncle seriously the bishop of Gibraltar?

  46. cameronl62 says:

    A dirty water dog from the roach carts in NYC must be topped with mustard and red onion sauce.

  47. Stephen Brockie says:

    in Cantonese, ke-zup is ketchup. Ke = tomato (fahn-ke) + Zup = sauce.

  48. Alex Chen says:

    3:19 Ke Tchup straight up means Tomato and Juice (same word is used for sauce) in Cantonese Chinese.

  49. tymime says:

    "Umami" is hard to describe??
    I still don't know why we don't call it "savory" or "meaty" anymore.

  50. JiveDadson says:

    Ketchup is for fried potatoes. Ketchup on a hamburger is seriously misguided. The tomato-vinegar component is properly implemented with sliced tomato and dill pickles.

    Ketchup on a hotdog is an abomination.

  51. JiveDadson says:

    For decades, I assumed that the derivation of "catsup" had to do with cats and supping.

  52. JiveDadson says:

    I grew up in East Texas, many moons ago. The hamburger was standardized: thin beef patty, salted, toasted bun, lettuce, tomato, chopped sweet onion, dill pickle, mustard and mayo. No ketchup, so don't ask.

    Pro tip: soak the chopped unions overnight in water.

  53. SRDuly2010 says:

    Enjoying the content but the teleprompter glare in his eyeglasses is too distracting

  54. Fooz BT says:

    Heinz ketchup, French’s mustard. No better pairing.

  55. ShadowedMage says:

    On hot dogs: sauerkraut, onion, hot peppers, and maybe just a tiny bit of a spicy dijon mustard.
    On hamburgers: I prefer plain. But a light amount of a mayo or aioli is fine too.

  56. rlbarney2 says:

    SMH… talk about Ketchup, yet fail to discuss its ties to Worcester Sauce?

    Also, two products manufactured by Heinz, but lacking the Ketchup name – Purple "Kids Condiment" (1990's/2000's?) and Chicago Dog Sauce. The first was the same time as the Green "Kids Condiment". The product, AFAIK did not have the word Ketchup on it. The second was made in response to it being heresy to put Ketchup on a Hot Dog in Chicago.

    In regards to toppings? Whatever one enjoys! 🙂

  57. Sarah Plays Games says:

    Best hot dog toppings are Chili sauce, cheese, and sauteed onions. Best burger toppings are cheese, and sauteed onions.

  58. ausnurten says:

    6:25 – Wait, wasn't this the recipe that inspired the creation of Worcestershire sauce?

  59. Bradley Jones says:

    Aye! You used my comment, sweet! Justin, are you related to Tim Dodd? You sound and sorta look like him.

  60. Matthew Jay says:

    Brother, I’m from Texas, so I love BBQ sauce and Tobasco (Louisiana) on my hamburger.

  61. grovermatic says:

    I like this guy!

  62. LaceLovesSocks says:

    Hot dog: any brown mustard and sweet pickle relish. Burger: cream cheese and barbecue sauce OR dijon mustard and garlic aioli if there's gonna be grilled mushrooms and swiss cheese involved.

  63. Michael Otton says:

    best sauce on a burger…
    is there any answer other then Aioli

  64. Joe Medley says:

    Ya’ know, ketchup has natural mellowing agents that help folks cope with life’s hardships.

  65. Sendieloo Who says:

    The best way to top a hot dog is whichever you like the best!

  66. Regan Bradford says:

    This one’s kinda boring

  67. Saitaina Malfoy says:

    One thing you miss about tomato posioning is that aot of people first eating them would be if wealth, meaning their diets were rich and not quite healthy. Tomatoes, being acidic can increase GERD which with their already rich diets, wouldn't have helped.

    Not deadly, but NOT fun.

  68. Jeff Lindeman says:

    With few exceptions, a proper hot dog must be all-beef, and the topping must be yellow or spicy brown mustard. Acceptable additions are The Chicago Dog with some celery seed, sport peppers and fresh tomato OR a Chili Dog with no-bean chili, onion and cheese of your choice OR just add sweet relish OR just add sauerkraut. I do like Dijon mustard – but never on hot dogs. And speaking of NEVER ON HOT DOGS, keep your ketchup away from my hot dog you sick fiend!

  69. kif411 says:

    Hey Food History/Mental Floss, do an episode about the origin of cooking oils?

  70. Ratryoshka says:

    That explains why we call soy sauce "kecap" (sounds similar to ketchup), the word originates from the chinese word for fish sauce!

  71. maidenrohina says:

    If eat Broccoli raw you can definitely tell it is related to mustard as it has the same spice to it as mustard does. Also mushroom ketchup is delicious and worth making.

  72. Joseph Magliocca says:

    1:34 and collard greens too!

  73. Alex W. says:

    A Chicago dog is good, but I’m more of a “nothing but a little ketchup” person myself. I could be convinced by another combo if u came across the right one though

    For a burger? Mayonnaise on the bottom bun (toasted) with a little salt and pepper. Then burger. The mayo keeps the juices from sitting the bun too quickly and the two mix beautifully. This is the bare minimum, but lettuce, tomato, caramelized (better than grilled or raw) onions, bacon, Swiss cheese, and maybe some mustard (ketchup + fresh tomato just doesn’t make sense) and/or sautéd-to-oblivion mushrooms make the quintessential burger for me. My favorite non-everyday burger has arugula, bleu cheese, bacon, and fig (can’t remember sauce). To get really out there, basically anything from Zombie Burger in Des Moines, IA

  74. Awesam Is a sniper says:

    Do bananas, it’s killing me that you don’t

  75. Thomas Gurley says:

    Missed opportunity to say "Mustard" at least once like the Mad Hatter

  76. tiffany r says:

    hello new host!!

  77. RPGArcher says:

    hot dog: cheese and onions
    burger: onion ring and grilled pineapple
    I'm a monster

  78. Babyroxasman says:

    Burger = Mustard, butt ton of tomatoes, and BBQ sauce
    Forget ketchup Barbecue is superior even if it does contain ketchup XD

  79. Uncle Metal says:

    Hot dog: yellow mustard, dill relish and onions.

  80. IamTheEggMan says:

    Cheaper than a Hotdog with no Mustard.

  81. angela piccolella says:

    Pliny…… plin-EE, not Plyny. Sigh.

  82. Maxyme Prévost-Girard says:

    Hot dog: bratwurst, sauerkraut and dijon mustard
    Burger: lamb patty, mint-yogurt sauce, lettuce

  83. Maple Hufflepuff says:

    French's ketchup is better than Heinz Ketchup.

  84. Antti Björklund says:


    Monks in the 1st century bce?

  85. psalm325 says:

    Bring Ranch to Europe!

  86. Björn Dahlberg says:

    Dijon Mustard isnt really an condiment though. It's so strong that the only way to use it is by adding it as seasoning in mayonnaise or in stews?. (I Only use it when making Mayo..)
    Not really something you put on your Hotdog.

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